“These ‘educational missionaries’ spoke of schools as if they were monasteries. By limiting the idea of education to formal school instruction, the public gradually lost sight of what the real thing was. The questions these specialists disputed were as irrelevant to real people as the disputes of medieval divines; there was about their writing a condescension for public concerns, for them ‘the whole range of education had become an instrument of deliberate social purpose.’ (emphasis added).”
—John Taylor Gatto, Underground History of American Education
As a possibly last series of connections to map, I am returning to Robert Graves’ buddy William Sargant, who worked at St Thomas’ Hospital from 1948 to the end of his career as head of the department of psychological medicine. In 1962, Sargant found himself a new assistant in one David Owen, a neurology and psychiatric registrar who had only just qualified as a doctor. Two years earlier, Owen had joined the Vauxhall branch of the Labor Party and the Fabian Society. The reason this is relevant is that Owen was allegedly complicit in allowing Jimmy Savile access to the psychiatric hospital Broadmoor, where he (Savile) abused countless patients over a period between 1968 and 2004 (when Savile had use of a personal set of keys to the hospital). According to The Daily Telegraph, Savile’s “involvement at Broadmoor was rubber-stamped in 1974 by Dr. David Owen, now Lord Owen, who was health minister.” Thanks to Owen, Savile “came to be in charge of Broadmoor for a period in the 1980s when he was put in charge of a task force to run the secure hospital.”
It’s generally been assumed that the reason Savile wanted (and was given) access to Broadmoor (besides visiting his pals Reggie Kray and Peter Sutcliffe) was to indulge his sadistic sexual proclivities by taking advantage of defenseless young girls (many of whom were simply runaways or troublemakers at school). No doubt this was part of it, but it may not have been the whole reason. It’s also possible, in the light of all the other evidence of similar “schooling” programs going on through the UK and the US and elsewhere for decades, that Savile had a specific role at Broadmoor, and that the institution was being used as a locale for the sorts of sexual and social research and experimentation which has fascinated the Fabians and others since at least the turn of the century. Maybe Broadmoor was, like Wedekind’s Sadian castle, a prison-school for “the bodily education of young girls”?
Nor are we talking only about Broadmoor. In 2014, Kate Lampard carried out an independent review of Savile’s predations within the British National Health Service (NHS), including over forty hospitals. Her report was quoted in The Guardian in 2015: “Savile’s status and influence . . . . was enhanced by the endorsement and encouragement he received from politicians, senior civil servants and NHS managers. His access within NHS hospitals gave Savile the opportunity to commit sexual abuses on a grand scale for nearly 50 years.” (emphasis added)
The article goes on to quote Liz Dux, a lawyer who represents 44 of Savile’s victims, calling the report a “crushing disappointment” because it held no one accountable.
“‘It beggars belief that a report which has revealed Savile was widely known as a sex pest at Stoke Mandeville can find no evidence of management responsibility,’ Dux said. ‘Ten victims had reported their assaults to nursing staff on the ward, including one complaint being made to management, yet still his deviant and sickening behaviour continued.’ She said the revelation in the report that three other doctors had committed serious sexual offences at the hospital in the past four decades suggested “something seriously amiss.’” (For the dozens of separate hospital reports of Savile’s fifty years of sexual abuse, go here.)
I have said that I wish to avoid unnecessary speculation with this work; but on this occasion I’m willing to go out on a limb, because without the horrifying context provided by Savile’s activities, the following information may seem random and bizarre. And maybe it is, but the only way to find out if the pieces fit is by placing them side by side.
The following facts are taken from a Mental Health History Timeline assembled by Middlesex University:
“In 1926 [the year Jimmy Savile was born] An appeal to The Commonwealth Fund (New York) by Cyril Burt and Amy Strachey, (born Amy Simpson 1866) ‘Mrs. St Loe Strachey’ for funds to start training psychiatric social workers at the London School of Economics (see below) and support for Child Guidance.” (What exactly do economics have to do with psychiatry or child guidance?) Three years later, in 1929 (the year Westlake founded his Forest School): “With money from The Commonwealth Fund, a Diploma in Mental Health started at the London School of Economics to train Psychiatric Social Workers. The fund’s Director, Barry Smith, had written in 1928 that ‘the training of psychiatric social workers is an essential and fundamental part of [a] child guidance program.’”
Some corroboration from the US National Library of Medicine:
“When the Commonwealth Fund agreed to finance the establishment of child guidance clinics in Britain, it stressed the need to train social workers in a university setting. Thus in 1929, the London School of Economics established the first course to train social science graduates with some experience of social work as PSWs. In the same year, the Association of Psychiatric Social Work (hereafter APSW) was inaugurated with the dual objectives of promoting mental hygiene, and raising the professional status of psychiatric social work.” (“‘Often there is a Good Deal to be Done, But Socially Rather Than Medically’: The Psychiatric Social Worker as Social Therapist, 1945–70”)
The Commonwealth Fund is a private foundation that is still around today. It was founded in 1918 by the widow of Stephen Vanderburgh Harkness. Harkness was the American entrepreneur and silent partner of John D. Rockefeller, Sr., in the founding of Standard Oil (and a director of Standard Oil until his death). Today, the Rockefeller Foundation houses all the archives for the Commonwealth fund. From their website: “As an independent, nonpartisan organization, the foundation has aimed to help develop common ground from which policymakers across the political spectrum can lead the nation toward a health care system that assures its residents have long, healthy, and productive lives.” (emphasis added)
Cyril Burt, mentioned above, was a member of the London School of Differential Psychology, and of the British Eugenics Society, so probably a Fabian. Amy Strachey, a.k.a. “Mrs. St Loe,” was the wife of John Strachey, a British journalist and father of the other John Strachey already mentioned in this work, the Labor politician who was at Oxford in 1922, when my grandfather arrived. Strachey joined the Labor Party the following year in 1923. From 1946 to 1950, he was the Minister of Food, which would have given him plenty of reason to have had dealings with Alec Horsley. While I have found no definite links to MI5 or MI6, his name certainly crops up a lot in related literature, and he is almost certainly one of the circle.
The Mental Health Timeline continues (for 1929) by mentioning a work called Our Baby—For Mothers and Nurses, eventually published in 1936 by John Wright/Simpkin Marshall, which “on page 126 lists Idiocy under Congenital Defects”:
“This is a term for mental weakness which dates from birth. It varies in degree from a mere feebleness of intellect, to a state in which the mind seems wholly absent. Should a child fail to answer to most of the tests of normal progress given on page 88, it must be considered backward, and the child should be taken to a doctor, as systematic training should be begun very early, considerable improvement being then almost always possible.”
This description clearly evokes what would become standard operating procedure with autistics in the coming decades. And do I need remind the reader of Russell’s plan for close surveillance, categorization and the use of “behaviourism” with children, from the moment of conception onward?
The Timeline then quotes a “Wood Report on Mental Deficiency published by the Board of Control” from the same year:
“the majority of the feeble-minded are to be found within a relatively small social group, a group which may be described as the subnormal or social problem group, representing approximately 10 per cent of the whole population. Most of the parents in this subnormal group are themselves of poor mental endowment, and would no doubt have been classed, when children, among the dull or retarded. Similarly the dull children of the present generation, who form a large majority amongst children in this subnormal group, are the potential parents of many feeble-minded in the next generation. Therefore, from the standpoint of the prevention of many social evils it is of the utmost importance that the problems of the education and social care of the borderline retarded child should be effectively tackled. . . . Let us assume that we could segregate as a separate community all the families in this country containing mental defectives of the primary amentia type. We should find that we had collected among them a most interesting social group. It would include, as everyone who has extensive practical experience of social service would readily admit, a much larger proportion of insane persons, epileptics, paupers, criminals (especially recidivists), unemployables, habitual slum dwellers, prostitutes, inebriates and other social inefficients than would a group of families not containing mental defectives. The overwhelming majority of the families thus collected will belong to that section of the community which we propose to term the ‘social problem’ or ‘subnormal’ group. This group comprises approximately the lowest 10 per cent in the social scale of most communities.” (Full report in several parts here.)
The Mental Health Timeline then refers to the April 1929 Journal of the American Medical Association about the establishment of the London Child Guidance Clinic (citing “Bowlby 1936” and “Tavistock 1967” and cites (in 1929) a “Conference on Mental Health convened by the Joint Committee of the National Council for Mental Hygiene and the Tavistock Square Clinic. Held in Westminster.”
The Bowlby referred to is Edward John Mostyn Bowlby, a British psychologist, psychiatrist, and psychoanalyst, notable for his interest in child development and for his pioneering work in attachment theory. (A Review of General Psychology survey published in 2002 ranked Bowlby as the 49th most cited psychologist of the 20th century.) Bowlby worked during World War II in Canonbury in the child psychiatry unit with maladapted and delinquent children, which led to an interest in the development of children, and to his work at the Child Guidance Clinic in Islington, London. By his own account, he had help getting established from some “academic economist” friends.
As for the Child Guidance Clinic, it was founded by the Jewish Health Organization in 1927 and was the first children’s psychiatric facility in the UK, and allegedly also Europe. From The Use of Psychoanalytic Concepts in Therapy with Families, by Hilary A. Davies:
“It was set up to meet the needs of the immigrant population who had settled in that part of London since the beginning of the century and whose children were perceived to have emotional, psychological, behavioral, and educational difficulties. A foreword to an early report by the Clinic is quoted as saying that ‘in its efforts to adjust the groping child mind to life, to make useful citizens of difficult and abnormal boys and girls [it] is doing the work of civilization.’ . . . The Clinic was able to offer a service to almost 1900 children and families from all over the UK in the first 4½ years of its existence. The Clinic later moved and became the Tavistock.”
Returning to the Mental Health Timeline, John Bowlby joined the Tavistock Clinic in 1946 as Deputy Director and set up the Children’s Department to develop clinical services, training and research. In 1948, he obtained a small grant from the Sir Halley Stewart Trust to “empirically study the effects of early separation and deprivation” (emphasis added). For his research, he hired a psychiatric social worker (James Robertson, presumably LSE-trained). The London Child Guidance Clinic eventually became the Child Guidance Training Centre and was housed in the Tavistock Centre from 1967. In 1985, it merged with the Tavistock Clinic’s Department for Children and Parents and became the Child and Family Department.
I noticed in the Timeline at this point (1986) the mention of “MBE [first appointment to the Order of the British Empire, the one before OBE] in New Year Honours: Miss Eve Saville, General Secretary, Institute for the Study and Treatment of Delinquency.” A quick search revealed that Miss Eve Saville was a Fabian. Whether she was related to Jimmy, OBE, I do not know and I doubt anyone else does (not counting those who do). The names Savile and Saville seem to be more or less interchangeable, and one easy way for Sir Jimmy (who called his mum “the Duchess”) to cover any possible aristocratic ancestral tracks might have been to remove one of the l’s. Eve is a somewhat mysterious character, considering there is almost nothing about her online and yet there is a Memorial Lecture named after her. She was the author of an obscure tract called “A History of the I.S.T.D [Institute for the Study and Treatment of Delinquency]: A Study of Crime and Delinquency from 1931 to 1992.”
After a period searching through Google Books, I found a most unexpected affiliation between Eve Saville and Victor Neuburg, Crowley’s ill-fated homosexual partner and disciple, and fellow phallus-worshipper with Dion Byngham. In The Magical Dilemma of Victor Neuburg, the author Jean Overton Fuller reveals, through her correspondence with Eve Saville, that Neuberg was one of the founding members of the ISTD. In a letter to Fuller, Saville writes that Neuberg “was present at the very first meeting [at Primrose Hill, near Hampstead, and] appeared as one of the original members of the Executive Committee and as Honorary Secretary at the beginning of 1931.” A list of thirty-nine Vice-Presidents for 1934 included Freud, Jung, Adler, Havelock Ellis, and H. G. Wells.
 Owen went to school at Mount House School, Tavistock, an English town written about by Arthur Conan Doyle and Neal Stephenson. I can’t find any link between the Tavistock Institute and the town, though it stands to reason they must have taken the name from somewhere.
 Without going into all the details, Strachey also has traceable links to Lord Boothby (whom he probably met at Oxford), Tom Wintringham and Victor Gollancz (of the 1941 Committee), Keynes and Laski (of LSE), Richard Acland, Tom Driberg, and so on.
 “In June 1924 the Chief Medical Officer of the Board of Education, Sir George Newman, appointed a committee to consider the problems presented by the ‘mentally defective’ child. A year later the committee was asked to include ‘adult defectives’ in its inquiry, so the report was presented, in January 1929, both to Newman and to the Chairman of the Board of Control. The chair of the committee was Arthur Henry Wood. Born in Reading in December 1870, he was educated at Cranbrook Grammar School and New College Oxford. The 1901 census describes him as an examiner for the Board of Education and he went on to become Assistant Secretary to the Board. He served as secretary for the Consultative Committee’s 1909 report Attendance, Compulsory or Otherwise, at Continuation Schools. . . . Also on the committee was the eugenicist Cyril Burt.”
 John Bowlby told Milton Senn in 1977: “The London Child Guidance Clinic was set up in a part of Islington called Canonbury. That clinic, I think, was founded in 1929. It trained educational psychologists, social workers and child psychiatrists. Each year three fellowships in child psychiatry were advertised—they were half-time fellowships for one year—and in 1936 I was successful in being appointed to one of them. I used to spend every morning at Canonbury and a bit of the afternoon usually as well, and then I went on and did analysis later in the day. I should say that I always had a few hundred pounds of private money—very important—which meant to say that I was not pressed for bread and butter. I was at the time also much influenced by two close friends who were academic economists, one of whom is my brother-in-law and one of whom was a very close personal friend with whom I shared a flat, and they represented a strong academic interest. . . . Both were very able people, both have gone a long way though unfortunately, one, Evan Durbin, died in a very tragic accident in 1948. They were first-class people which was very important, really, because I was espousing a very novel and peculiar outlook as an analytically oriented child psychiatrist as we might call it. That was what I was aspiring to be. The whole field was still very controversial and needed a lot of academic justification. Well, to cut a long story short—first of all I had had a good scientific training at Cambridge, and secondly, my academic friends were very powerful debaters and any position which I took up I had to justify up to the hilt by argument and evidence. This was an invaluable discipline I think.” (Emphasis added.) http://www.beyondthecouch.org/1207/bowlby_int.htm
 Hilary A. Davies, Karnac Books, 2010, p. 15. The citation about doing the work of civilization is attributed, via a website, to “Lady Lawrence” who was Chairman of the Clinic in 1934 and had written a foreword to a report. The website states its source as The Times and makes a guess as to the identity of the Lady Lawrence in question being Lady Rosamond Lawrence, a British novelist who wrote several popular books before marrying and relocating to India. However, it’s also possible the Lady Lawrence referred to was the British Labor MP Susan Lawrence, who was appointed Parliamentary Secretary to the Ministry of Health in 1929. Lawrence had joined the Fabian Society a few years previously, and was close friends with Sydney and Beatrice Webb.
 FABIAN SOCIETY, 77th Annual Report , 1st JULY 1959 TO 30th JUNE I960, Saville is listed among “HONORARY SECRETARIES OF REGIONAL AND AREA COMMITTEES OF LOCAL FABIAN SOCIETIES”: https://www.archive.org/stream/fabiantract1959a60fabiuoft/fabiantract1959a60fabiuoft_djvu.txt